学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第12巻第1号掲載

知的財産戦略によるイノベーションの専有可能性 ─インクジェットプリンタの暗黙の知的財産同盟─
Intellectual Property Right Strategy Acquiring the Appropriability of Innovation: An Implicit Patent Alliance of Inkjet Printer Companies


後藤 吉正、玄場 公規
Yoshimasa Goto, Kiminori Gemba

日本知財学会誌 Vol.12 No.1 p.50-83 (2015-10-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.12 No.1 p.50-83 (2015-10-20)

<要旨>
イノベーションが創出した価値をイノベーターが享受できること,即ちイノベーションの専有可能性は事業経営の重要課題である.特許制度が付与する独占排他権は,専有可能性の有力な手段として期待されてきた.しかし,化学製品・医薬以外の必須特許が多数存在する産業では,必須特許が多数の企業に拡散し独占排他権の実行が困難な場合が多い.しかし,本論文が事例研究で取り上げるインクジェットプリンタでは,技術開発で先行して必須特許権者となった3社が3社の間だけで,相互にクロスライセンスするかあるいは実施を黙認するが,他社には実施許諾しないという知的財産戦略を実行した.これにより,3社が必須特許の実施権を専有し,3社以外の企業が市場参入する機会を抑制することに成功し,その結果,3社はイノベーションの専有可能性を達成した.本論文は,以上を分析し,更に,この知的財産戦略の成立・継続を支えた主要な4つ要因にも言及する.
<Abstract>
This paper describes an intellectual property right strategy of inkjet printer companies which acquires the appropriability of innovation. Exclusive rights based on the patent system have been expected to provide the appropriability of innovation. In many markets except a few such as chemicals and medicine, however, essential patents may not help patentees to dominate the market, because products consist of many essential patents distributed among many companies. This situation gives opportunity for many companies to enter the market, and makes the existing patent system ineffective in the process of innovation appropriability. In the inkjet printer market, however, three essential patent holders, Canon, EPSON and Hewlett-Packard licensed formally or informally their essential patents only among them, and did not license for other companies. This intellectual property rights strategy allowed three companies to occupy the license of essential patents, and to dominate the inkjet printer market successfully. Also this paper explains four major factors which supported this strategy to keep effective. The relationship among three companies looked like a patent alliance based on an agreement. No explicit contract and agreement, however, did exist among three companies.

<キーワード>
イノベーション,イノベーションの専有可能性,知財マネジメント,アライアンス,インクジェットプリンタ
<Keywords>
Innovation, appropriability of innovation, patent management, Alliance, Inkjet printer