学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第9巻第2号掲載

アメリカ特許法における共有 -Ethicon, Inc. v. United States Surgical Corp. 事件を中心に
Joint Ownership under the United States Patent Act: Ethicon, Inc. v. United States Surgical Corp.


小野 奈穂子
Nahoko Ono

日本知財学会誌 Vol.9 No.2 p.48-56(2012-12-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.9 No.1 p.48-56(2012-12-20)

<要旨>
個人一人の発明よりもチーム研究による発明が台頭するなか,共同発明者の認定において,特許権全体ではなく,請求項ごとの判断とすることは日米で共通認識されている.共同発明者が特許権全体を一承継人にまとめない限り,かかる特許権の共有となり得ることも日米で共通している.共同発明者性と共有は連続しているのである.他方で,ポートフォリオ取引ないしオープン・イノベーションも台頭するなか,特許権の財産権としての移転までもわが国現行法制のように請求項ごととすることはいかがなものか.本稿は,アメリカのある判決を素材に,日米の現行法制に対して提言を試みる.
<Abstract>
As team research rather than individual endeavor gets predominant, both Japan and the United States direct to determine joint inventorship based on individual claims rather than a patent as a whole. Unless the patent invention as a whole is assigned to one individual/ company, each joint-inventor may possess a joint-ownership. That is recognized both in Japan and the United States. Joint-ownership is an extension of joint-inventorship. On the other hand, as portfolio- or business-based transaction gets predominant as well as open innovation, a property-right aspect may be distinguished from the examination-based administrative acts to confer an exclusive right to an inventor. This article poses a question if a claim-based approach is also applicable to ownership issue, and proposes the distinction between the joint-inventorship and joint-ownership to both Japanese and the United States regime based on Ethicon case in the United States.

<キーワード>
共同発明者の認定,共有,財産権
<Keywords>
joint-inventorship, joint-ownership, property right