学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第9巻第2号掲載

不実施機関を含む共同研究における知的財産権共有問題
Issues on Sharing Intellectual Property Rights in the Joint Research Which Includes a Non-Implementing Body


木村 友久
Tomohisa Kimura

日本知財学会誌 Vol.9 No.2 p.24-36(2012-12-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.9 No.1 p.24-36(2012-12-20)

<要旨>
異なる主体間で共同研究を行う際,その成果物である知的財産権を共有にするケースが存在する.本来的な特許を受ける権利等の発生時点における共有関係が,そのまま権利化に至るケースと,プロジェクト全体を見通した総合判断に立脚した事前・事後の契約で権利共有を約束するケースである.この場合,基本的には特許法73条等の各知財法に規定された権利共有ルールを踏まえた交渉や実務処理が進行することになる.ここで,共有者中にライセンス以外の実施について法的制約が課された主体が含まれる場合,当該不実施機関側から契約交渉を見渡すと,各知財法の共有規定を本則通り受け入れることが利益衡量の観点から問題であると感じる局面が存在する.本報告は平成16年度受託研究調査データを元に,前述の問題を考察する参考資料に資するために当事者の基本的行動を提示し若干の考察を加えたものである.
<Abstract>
In collaborative research between different parties, there are some cases that intellectual property rights, outcomes of the research, are shared as joint ownership as follows:
1. Co-ownership existing at the time of emergence of rights to benefit inherently from a patent leads to acquisition of right.
2. Parties agree to joint ownership based upon the contract made before or after projects according to synthetic judgment after examining the whole project.
In these cases, basically, negotiation and operations follow in light of the rule of joint ownership specified in patent law in Article 73 and so on. If co-owners include the party on which legal restrictions are imposed regarding enforcement of a legal right besides license, a non-implementing body sometimes regards the contractual negotiation negatively. It should be noted that accepting shared rules of every intellectual property law in accordance with the main rules is problematic in terms of balancing mutual interest. This report intends to be a reference for examining aforementioned issues. It also presents basic actions of the parties involved and a little additional consideration on them based upon the survey data collected in my funded research in 2004.

<キーワード>
共有知的財産権,特許法第73条,共同研究,研究契約,不実施機関
<Keywords>
Intellectual Property Rights of the Share, Article 73 of the Patent Act, Collaborative Research, Research Agreement, Organization Which Cannot Carry Out a Patent Right