学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第8巻第3号掲載

先使用権制度における公平説再考
Reconsideration of the Equity Theory on Prior User Rights System


鈴木 英明
Hideaki Suzuki

日本知財学会誌 Vol.8 No.3 p.87-101(2012-3-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.8 No.3 p.87-101(2012-3-20)

<要旨>
本論文は,我が国の特許法における先使用権制度について,体系化とともにその起源としての米国法における検討を通して公平説の再考を試みるものである.先使用権制度の趣旨については,①経済説,②公平説等があるが,沿革的には経済説から公平説に推移しており,公平説がほぼ通説であるとされる.ウォーキングビーム事件最高裁判決も主として公平説によることを判示している.体系化および米国法の検討から先発明主義,先願主義のいずれを採っても見かけ上最先の発明に先立って,これとは別個・独立に発明を完成し,この発明を実施(実施の準備)していることに尊重すべき,特許制度の目的である産業の発達という公益に資する価値が生まれるため先使用権を認めるのだという考え方を提示し,①実施規模の拡大,②実施形式の変更について考察した.
<Abstract>
This paper tries reconsideration of a “equity theory” through the examination in the laws of the United States as the origin with systematization about the prior user rights system in Patent Law of our country.
Although there are a (1) economic theory, a (2) justice theory, etc. about the meaning of a prior user rights system, it is changing to the justice theory from the economic theory in history, and it is supposed that the justice theory is accepted theory mostly. It has ruled also depending “walking beam incident” Supreme Court judgment mainly on a justice theory. Even if it takes any of a first-to-invent rule and a first-to-file rule from systematization and examination of the laws of the United States, the earliest invention is preceded seemingly, Since the value which contributes to the public interest of the industrial development which is the purpose of a patent system which should complete invention separately from this and independently and should be respected to carry out this invention (preparation of enforcement) was born, the view of accepting the prior user rights shown, and (1) expansion of enforcement scale and (2) change of enforcement form were considered.

<キーワード>
先使用権,経済説,公平説,産業の発達,公益
<Keywords>
Prior User Rights, Economic Theory, Equity Theory, The Industrial Development, Public Interest