Permitted Use of Trademarks in the United States
日本知財学会誌 Vol.5 No.4 p.23-43 (2009-3-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.5 No.4 p.23-43（2009-3-20）
The U.S. Trademark Act has a single “fair use” provision allowing “descriptive uses” of registered trademarks. But US courts have created an expansive range of permitted usages designed to serve the underlying policy of the U.S. trademark law: to prevent unfair competition while encouraging vibrant fair competition. For this reason, the use of another’s mark will be permitted - not only when the use is not likely to cause confusion as to source or sponsorship - but even when it does, when the use is necessary to promote real competition.
Trademark, Dilution, Fair Use, Confusing Use, Non-Infringing use