学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第3巻第3号掲載

日本企業の発明補償制度の実態分析 ―インセンティブ対規制
Empirical Analysis for Japanese Firms on Compensation System for Employee’s Inventions:
Incentive Hypothesis Versus Regulation Hypothesis


長岡 貞男、西村 陽一郎
Sadao Nagaoka, Yoichiro Nishimura

日本知財学会誌 Vol.3 No.3 p.31-45(2007-3-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.3 No.3 p.31-45(2007-3-20)

<要旨>
本稿では,日本企業の発明者補償水準の企業間の変動を,インセンティブ理論に基づくインセンティブ仮説と,特許法第35条の規制による受動的な理由で補償費が支払われるといった規制仮説のどちらが良く説明するかの分析を試みた.企業による発明者補償の支払いパターンを見ると,特許法第35条による規制が企業による発明者へのインセンティブの与え方をかなり制約している可能性を示唆する.同時に,今後職務発明訴訟において成功した発明に高い相当の対価を事後的に認定することがなされると,研究開発のリスクが高い企業でも実績ベースの補償金の部分を大きくせざるを得なくなり,経済合理性が失われていく危険性も示唆する.よって,今後の発明者補償については合理的な事前契約がどのようであったかの観点から分析を行い,企業のR&D投資インセンティブと発明者への効率的な誘因を損なわないように設計していくことが非常に重要である.
<Abstract>
In this paper, we examine which incentive hypothesis based on contract theory or regulation hypothesis that Japanese firms passively pay compensation for employee inventors due to Article 35 of Japan's Patent Law is more consistent with gross compensation variations for employee inventors across Japanese firms.
The payment pattern of compensation to inventors which is currently implemented by Japanese firms implies the possibility that the effect of compensation for employee's inventions on inventors' incentive is considerably subject to the regulation by Article 35 of Japan's Patent Law.
In addition, this pattern also suggests that the economic rationality under efficient contract is possible to be lost when higher “remuneration” for successful inventions is frequently permitted ex post in the future litigation regarding to employee's inventions so that even Japanese firms which are faced with higher R&D risk are forced to enlarge performance based compensation.
Therefore, it is very important for Japanese firms to examine compensation for employee's inventions in the future from the viewpoint of ex ante efficient contract and then to design a mechanism to efficiently exert the incentive of R&D investment by Japanese firms as well as efforts by inventors.

<キーワード>
発明補償制度,インセンティブ理論,規制仮説,特許法第35条,職務発明訴訟
<Keywords>
Compensation System for Employee Inventions, Contract Theory, Regulation Hypothesis, Article 35 of Japan’s Patent Law, Patent Litigation for Employee’s Inventions