学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第17巻第3号掲載

標準と知財のバランス
─ 標準化団体におけるIPR Policy をめぐる対立と議論から見えるもの ─
Balance Between Standards and Intellectual Property: What Appears from the Discussion and Confrontation Over the IPR Policies in Standardization Bodies

福岡 則子
Noriko Fukuoka

日本知財学会誌Vol.17 No.3 p.57-65 (2021-3-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.17 No.3 p.57-65 (2021-3-20)

<要旨>
本稿は標準必須特許 (SEP) に関わる係争が多発するなかで,係争解決策を模索した国際標準化団体で行われた議論を取り上げる.司法・競争当局でFRAND宣言特許の差止請求権の可否やFRANDの解釈が議論されるなか,標準化団体ではFRAND宣言の明確化のため,IPRポリシーを再検討する議論がITU IPR AdhocやETSIの場で国際的な規模で行われた.IPR ポリシーは標準と知財のバランスを定めるための重要な指針であるが,議論を通じて,FRAND宣言と差止請求権の可否,FRANDの解釈議論など対立点が明確になった.筆者はそれらの議論に直接参加し,議論に貢献することができた.さらに,米国での標準化団体IEEE においてIPRポリシーをめぐる議論の錯綜にも立ち会うことができた.それらの議論を振り返り,対立の構造,標準化団体が果たす役割と意義,標準化団体における議事運営のあり方について分析・考察する.
<Abstract>
This paper analyzes discussions in international standards bodies seeking solutions to disputes related to standard essential patents (SEPs). While the judicial and competition authorities are discussing availability of an injunction by FRAND declared patents and the interpretation of FRAND, discussions on IPR Policies took place on an international scale at the ITU IPR Adhoc and ETSI in order to clarify the FRAND declaration. The IPR policy is an important guideline for determining the balance between standards and intellectual property, but through discussions, conflicts on the FRAND declaration, the propriety of injunctions, and the interpretation of FRAND were clarified. The author participated directly in those discussions and contribute to them. In addition, I was able to witness the confusion over the IPR policy at the IEEE, a standards body in the United States. Looking back on those discussions, we will analyze and consider the structure of the conflict, the role and significance of the standardization body, and the ideal way of proceedings in the standardization body.

<キーワード>
標準化団体, FRAND, IPR ポリシー, ITU, IEEE
<Keywords>
Standard Developing Organization (SDO), FRAND, IPR Policy, ITU, IEEE