学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第17巻第3号掲載

標準必須特許に対する独占禁止法の役割
The Role of Competition Laws over Standard Essential Patents

池田 毅
Tsuyoshi (Yoshi) Ikeda 

日本知財学会誌Vol.17 No.3 p.27-37 (2021-3-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.17 No.3 p.27-37 (2021-3-20)

<要旨>
FTC対クアルコム事件控訴審判決などの近時の判決等により,SEP権者優位の潮流が確立し,実施者にとっての独占禁止法の活用の余地は限定的になったようにもみえる.しかし,近時の潮流は,これまで独占禁止法・知的財産権・標準の間で行われてきたせめぎ合いの延長線上にあり,実施権者優位の「転換期」からの揺り戻しと位置付けられる.SEPへの独占禁止法適用の根拠は,SEPの非代替性およびFRAND宣言に加え,標準が競争者の共同行為に基づく点にあるところ,SEP 権者の共同行為などには依然として独占禁止法上の検討は重要である.さらに,各国の独占禁止法の差異もあり,SEP権者および実施者の双方にとって,いかに独占禁止法を活用するかは今後も重要であり続けると考えられる.
<Summary>
It appears that the potential use of competition laws over the use of SEPs in the future will be limited due to the recent developments, such as the judgment by the 9th Circuit in the FTC v. Qualcomm case, which have made it clear that the courts now tend to stand on SEP holders’ side. The recent developments are, however, in the natural course of the long-lasting back-and-forth conflicts among antitrust, SEPs and standardization. The current situation can be described as “Swing Over” period following the “Transition” period when implementers enjoyed a series of judgments favorable for them. In the first place, competition laws can be applicable for the use of SEPs not only because the SEPs are essential and subject to FRAND declarations but also because SEPs are the achievements obtained only through the collaboration of competitors. As such, potential enforcement of competition laws should remain important, especially for joint conducts by multiple SEP holders. Moreover, differences of competition laws in different jurisdictions give (and will give in the future) both SEP holders and implementers opportunities to take advantage of strategic use of competition laws.

<キーワード>
独占禁止法, 標準必須特許, 公正取引委員会, FRAND宣言, クアルコム
<Keywords>
Competition (Antitrust) Law, Standard Essential Patent, The Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC), FRAND Declaration, Qualcomm