学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第17巻第1号掲載

標準必須特許によるイノベーションの専有可能性
─ DVD プレーヤーとDVD ドライブの比較事例研究─
Standard Essential Patents Acquiring the Appropriability of Innovation: A Comparative Case Study of DVD Players and DVD Drives

後藤 吉正、玄場 公規
Yoshimasa Goto,Kiminori Gemba

日本知財学会誌 Vol.17 No.1 p.58-79 (2020-8-20)
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.17 No.1 p.58-79 (2020-8-20)

<要旨>
 DVDは,技術開発で先行し標準必須特許の殆どを取得した有力特許権者企業が,特許シェアに見合う市場シェアを得られず,イノベーションの専有可能性が実現できなかった典型的事例との報告が多い.本研究は,DVDプレーヤーとDVDドライブの比較事例研究を行い,前者では,特許シェアに見合う市場シェアを獲得できなかったが,後者では,有力特許権者企業5社が市場を寡占したことを示し,この差異が生まれた要因を分析した.
 要因の第一は,DVDドライブは特許ロイヤリティー不払いで事業継続が困難な事業分野である,第二は,製品単価の低下に伴い,単価に対するロイヤリティー額の比率が高くなった,第三に,有力特許権者5社は,①パテントプールに参加,②特許権を自己実施してDVDドライブを製造,③ロイヤリティー料を維持,という共通の特許活用戦略の実施である.
 このように,従来の報告とは異なりDVDドライブでは,標準必須特許が市場の寡占に貢献したことを示した.
<Summary>
This paper illustrates that the standard essential patents of DVD technologies were effective to acquire the appropriability of innovation in the DVD drive market but they were not in the DVD player market with a comparative case study of DVD drives and players. The major patentees of DVD standard succeeded to dominate the DVD drive market but they failed in the DVD player market.
This paper reveals the three reasons for their market domination. The first is characteristics of the drive market. It was hard for manufactures to sustain their business without paying patent royalty in the drive market, though not difficult in the player market. The second is the patent royalty of DVD drives became expensive relative to a product price. The third is that the major five patentee manufactures shared same patent strategies; they joined the patent pool for patent licensing and did not discount patent royalty. The expensive patent royalty worked as a barrier against manufactures without the standard essential patents.
There are many research papers reporting the DVD standard essential patents were not helpful to acquire the appropriability of innovation in the DVD market. However, this paper describes they were successful in the DVD drive market.

<キーワード>
知的財産戦略, イノベーション, 標準必須特許, 同盟, DVD
<Keywords>
Patent strategy, Innovation, Standard essential patent, Alliance, DVD