学会誌・資料 Journal

日本知財学会誌 第14巻第1号掲載

特許制度における農業慣行の適用をめぐる一考察 -農業者の種子使用に着眼して-
Farmer’s Customs in the Patent System: Examining on Farmer’s Seed Usage


岡田 ちから
Chikara Okada

日本知財学会誌 Vol.14 No.1p.79-90
Journal of Intellectual Property Association of Japan Vol.14 No.1 p.56-63 (2017-10-20)

<要旨> 
本論文は,Bowman v. Monsanto Co. 事件を取り上げ,裁判記録で深く言及されることのなかった特許制度への農業慣行の適用について,特許権が付随する遺伝子組み換え種子の使用に着眼し,裁判の当事者Bowman氏への聞き取り調査を踏まえて論じたものである.まず,特許制度と農業慣行が対立する要因について,種子とその使用に対する農業者とバイオメジャー(大手種苗会社)の捉え方の相違を明らかにすることにより,特許制度に農業慣行を認める根拠として「農業者の権利」を示した.次に,農業慣行が関係する特許権侵害訴訟における侵害成否の判断プロセスを検討した.詳しくは,消尽理論に基づいて対象製品の同一性を判断し,異なる製品である場合において,農業慣行に該当すれば特許権の効力を及ぼすべきではない旨を示した.
<Abstract>
The paper discusses how farmer’s customs could be applied to the patent theory by examining the “Bowman v. Monsanto Co.” case, which revolved around usage of patented genetically-modified seeds. With the specific focus on Bowman’s claim as to farmer’s customs, which were not deliberated in the judicial processes, based on an interview with him, rationales to recognize farmer’s customs in the current patent system were examined. The analysis, first, revealed that the cause for the dispute lay in different perspectives between bio-majors and farmers as to seeds as goods and the seed usage, while the concept of farmer’s right could justify farmer’s customs in the patent system. Second, the judgment process of patent infringement litigations as to farmer’s customs was pointed out. More specifically, after judging the identity of the products based on the theory of “first doctrine”, the action by the defendant is examined if the product intended by the plaintiff would be different from the product used by the defendant. Finally, if the defendant’s action was farmer’s custom, the effect of the patent would be imitated.

<キーワード> 
特許権, 遺伝子組み換え種子, 農業者の権利, 農業慣行
<Keywords>  
Patent, Genetically-Modified Seed, Farmer’s Right, Farmer’s Custom